In the years 1982-1994 activists of HIzbullah performed numerous acts of terrorism in Lebanon and around the world. Leaders of the organization in the 80’s, headed by the secretary general Subhi Tuffeily, declared the intention of their organization “to build a Moslem republic in all of the Middle East” and that “the way to Jerusalem leads through south Lebanon” derived from it. The organization did not participate in any democratic action in Lebanon.
In 1989-90 a violent clash broke out between the HIzbullah and the ‘Amal’ organization over the representation and leadership of the Shiite community. Most of the fighting took place in South Lebanon, with HIzbullah gaining the upper hand. For the first time the HIzbullah gained direct contact with the Security Zone , under Israeli rule, and a continuous effort aimed at the Israeli presence began. This resulted in fighting which corresponded to terrorist actions against Jewish targets abroad.
In April 1992 the secretary general of HIzbullah- Abbas Mussawi, was killed by ‘IDF’ and Hassan Nasserallah was appointed in his place. The new secretary general started his office while many changes started to form on the Middle Eastern scene. The Lebanese government, according to “Ta’ef agreement” from 1989, started to tighten its’ grip over Lebanon, pushing out of its’ way possible threats to sovereignty. Syria found herself without the support of the Soviet Union (which collapsed), and withheld further support of terrorism in an attempt to revive its’ international standing.
Hassan Nasserallah, with regard to these changes, led HIzbullah towards legitimacy in Lebanese society. For the first time, although in a joint list with “Amal”, the organization participated in Lebanese elections in 1992. Its’ representatives came to an understanding with Christians and Sunnites as to joint support of candidates. Its’ leaders started to use terms as “welfare of population “,”we are all Lebanese”, and “respect national sovereignty”. Towards the 1996 elections HIzbullah went even further and established a pseudo-organization called “Lebanese Battalions of Lliberation” (LBL), which called all Lebanese to join in, without religious differences, to fight the Israeli occupant-as fighting an occupant was a consensus. Since 1995 the international HIzbullah terrorism almost ceased. The organization accepted the ”Grapes of Wrath“ understanding from april,1996, which forbode shooting into Israel, but allows fighting against the occupant in Lebanon. Most important, this understanding recognized the international border between Israel and Lebanon. This turn around in the organization brought upon a violent clash between traditional Islamic line, headed by ex-secretary general Subhi Tuffeily and the new leadership of Hassan Nasserallah and to a split in the organization in the beginning of 1998.
In the late 90’s the HIzbullah spokesmen stressed their determination to fight Israel, until the last Israeli leaves Lebanese land, but kept in fog their further intentions. One can learn of this goal from numerous declarations of HIzbullah leaders as to their commitment to Lebanon, Lebanon’s sovereignty and its’ population.
The HIzbullah made a long way from a revolutionary, terrorist and all-Islamic organization since its’ foundation in 1982, into a national Shiite movement looking for its’ place in the multi-social Lebanese society.
Today (03/2007) Hassan Nasserallah is still the secretary general of HIzbullah. After the assassination of former P.M Rafik Hariri in Beirut on 02/14/2005 and the evacuation of Syrian forces from Lebanon afterwards, HIzbullah is considered by non Shiites in Lebanon as a proxy of Iran and Syria in Lebanon and serving their interest rather the Lebanese genuine interest. In the eyes of Sunnites in Lebanon HIzbullah is a part of the Iranian Shiite threat on the Sunnites in all the Middle East.
Because the Shiites in Lebanon are more than 60% of the general population in the country it seems to be that HIzbullah is, in fact, the landlord of Lebanon.
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